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博碩士論文 etd-0915115-101903 詳細資訊


姓名 黃萬福 (Wan-Fu Huang) 電子郵件信箱 wanfghuang@yahoo.com.tw
系所 設計科學研究所 (Graduate Institute of Design Science)
學位 博士 (Ph.D.) 學年 / 學期 103 學年第 2 學期
論文名稱(中) 人類膝部在工作時之保護方式研究-以專業地毯舖設工為例
論文名稱(英) A Study on Human Knee Protection during Work Tasks - An Example of Carpert Layer
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論文語文別 / 頁數 中文 / 99
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關鍵字(中)
  • 工作護膝
  • 膝踢器(Knee Kicker)
  • 緩衝墊設計
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • Knee Kicker
  • Bumper Design
  • Work Knee Pads
  • 摘要(中) 要以跪姿完成工作任務是一些行業中勞工每日必要的活動像是:地毯舖設工、礦工、磁磚工、地板工、電匠、造船工、、等等。就美國勞動人力而言地毯舖設工的比例少於 0.06%,然而他們因為膝部職業性創傷補償金索賠供獻比例達 6.2% 。地毯舖設工的職業性膝部病變非常盛行。他們的工作時會多個來源會引起急性、慢性膝部創傷,包括長期的蹲跪姿態、來自尖銳物體的壓力、以及他們在舖設時需要以膝蓋部位踢擊 "膝踢器(Knee Kicker)" 未端的緩衝墊。
      緩衝墊明顯的影響到踢力傳遞及安全,此研究首要目標在改良緩衝墊設計,以降低危害因子。設計一擺鎚式衝擊實驗機台當成評估裝置,並以衝量及彈性回復系數當成評估效標。新設計的緩衝墊以鑽盲孔方式改變整體剛固性並增加有效往前的衝力 15% ~138%,可降低操作需求和較輕的膝部負荷 (也就是說,以較少的踢擊能量就可達到相同的工作效率),而較軟的接觸表面增加操作舒適度。新設計的緩衝墊得之受測者主觀評量是正向的。
      此研究的第二部分,則是針對工作護膝緩衝墊提出改良設計提議。黏貼在膝蓋上的可彎曲力感知器群組 (Flexible Force Sensor-FFS) 作為膝部受力判斷的主要裝置。它呈現:在跪姿期間選用適當設計的護膝,可降低膝上局部高應力集中現像。應此,新的護膝設計,應可橫跨膝部一個更大的表面重新分配應力,且要遠離膝部跪姿的關鍵結構擴到腳的其他區域是必要的。
    摘要(英) Kneeling is a daily activity for some occupations like carpet layers, miners, tile layers, floor layers, electricians, shipbuilders and many others. Carpet layers comprise less than 0.06% of the United States workforce yet they submit 6.2% of compensation claims for traumatic knee inflammation. Cararpet layers have a high prevalence of occupational knee morbidity. Their work involves multiple sources of acute and chronic knee trauma including kneeling, pressure from sharp objects, and they need to frequently ‘kick’ the bumper on the rear end of the knee kicker with one knee when laying a carpet.
      Considering the bumper’s marked effects on kicking force transmission and safety, the primary objective of this study is to improve the design of the knee-kicker bumper by reducing the risk factors. An improved pendulum-type impact-testing platform was designed as an evaluative apparatus, with the impulse and the coefficient of restitution serving as evaluative criteria.
      The newly developed bumper has improved firmness from drilled blind holes and an increase in effective forward force of 15%-138%, which implies lower operational demands and a lighter knee burden (i.e., less kicking energy results in the same work efficiency), and a softer contact surface that enhances operating comfort. The newly designed kicker was positively reviewed by subjects.
      The second part of this study, it is presented proposals for improved design work kneepad. The placement of the group of Flexible Force Sensor (FFSs) on the knee was found to be a major factor for the estimation of the force on the knees. It is apparent that proper kneepad design and selection can be an effective abatement to reduce the stress accumulated on the knee during kneeling work. The conclusion of this study is that novel knee pads designs that redistribute the stresses at the knee across a greater surface area and to other regions of the leg away from key structures of the knee are needed.
    論文目次 第壹章 序論
    第一節 研究背景 1
    第二節 研究動機 4
    第三節 研究目的 7
    第四節 研究假設與限制 10
    第五節 研究架構 12
    第貳章 文獻探討
    第一節 膝關節組成 14
    2-1-1骨骼 15
    2-1-2 韌帶 16
    2-1-3腱及肌肉 18
    2-1-4半月板 19
    2-1-5滑囊 20
    第二節 膝關節第生物力學 21
    2-2-1 膝部的屈曲與伸展 22
    2-2-2 膝關節負荷 24
    2-2-3 半月板扮演重要角色 25
    2-2-4 髕骨的重要性 27
    第三節 膝部傷害 28
    2-3-1 一般常見的膝部受傷和問題 28
    2-3-2 職業性膝部受傷 32
    2-3-3 工作時需長期蹲跪完成工作任務的三種行業之膝部職業傷害 33
    第四節 膝部護具與工作護膝 37
    2-4-1 膝部護具之種類與特性 37
    2-4-2 工作護膝 38
    第參章 現況調查與前期研究
    第一節 膝踢器緩衝墊改良的前期研究 41
    3.1.1 膝踢器及緩衝墊簡介 41
    3.1.2 緩衝墊改良 42
    3.1.3 測試裝置 44
    3.1.4 校正、前測與驗證 47
    3.1.5 膝踢器緩衝墊改良的前期研究小結 47
    第二節 工作護膝的設計改良的前期研究 51
    3.2.1 現有產品樣本調查 51
    3.2.2 蹲跪姿時地面的反力 53
    3.2.3 蹲跪姿時地面的反力-接觸力(contact force)量測 54
    3.2.4 校正 57
    3.2.5 膝蓋上的解剖標記點-感測器安裝位置 57
    3.2.6 前測 58
    3.2.7 工作護膝緩衝墊設計改良前測小結 61
    第肆章 實驗與改良研究
    第一節 實驗一:使用多變量分析(MANOVA)對五款具代表性膝踢器緩衝墊樣本進
        行比較 63
    4.1.1 變項 63
    4.1.2 測試裝置與儀器 65
    4.1.3 測試流程 65
    4.1.4 資料分析方法 65
    4.1.5 結果與分析 66
    第二節 實驗二:受測者主觀評量 69
    4.2.1 實驗說明 69
    4.2.2 結果與分析 70
    第三節 實驗三:不同幾何形狀接觸表面的衝頭配置對有效推力的影響 71
    4.3.1 實驗說明 71
    4.3.2 結果與分析 73
    第四節 工作護膝緩衝墊改良設計建議 75
    第伍章 結論與建議
    第一節 膝踢器緩衝墊改良 78
    第二節 工作護膝的緩衝墊設計改良 79
    第三節 未來研究建議 79
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    附錄一 87
    附錄二 88
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    指導教授/口試委員
  • 吳志富 - 指導教授
  • 王則眾 - 委員
  • 吳俊杰 - 委員
  • 唐硯漁 - 委員
  • 許言 - 委員
  • 口試日期 2015-07-29 繳交日期 2015-09-15


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