||Adenoviruses generally were spread by faecal-oral route, and the importance of viral transmission by water is probably underestimated. When people contact the contaminated food or water, it would increase the risk of public health. Since 2006, our has investigated of adenoviruses at the Damshui River and the coastal water of northern Taiwan, and the results have shown that adenoviruses were detected in those area. Large numbers of adenoviruses are excreted in human faeces, and they are known to be very abundant in raw sewage and then polluted waters. Wastewater treatment plants are the important system of monitoring pathogens transmitted to water. Thus, the objective of this study was to monitor and analyze adenoviruses in wastewater treatment plant in Taipei city in order to understand adenoviruses of correlate at downstream Damshui River and effluent water.
First, to develop a rapid and efficiency virus concentration method. Six concentration method combinations, adsorption on nitrocellulose membranes followed by an acid rinse elution consistently gave the highest recovery efficiencies. Further evaluate quantitative of adenoviruses in water samples by convention Real-Time quantitative PCR or cell culture, and new technology of ICC-qPCR or nanogold-PCR/qPCR. This study obtained 2.17×104 genomic copies/mL adenoviruses for 1 PFU/mL by qPCR and cell culture (Plaque Assay). However, using ICC-qPCR could detect 1.2 PFU/mL of adenoviruses within 48 hours. Using nanogold-PCR/qPCR could reduce inhibitors in environment sample. Au nanoparticles could increase the sensitivity of PCR detection 100-fold in nanogold-PCR and further increase 1.15-to 3.5-fold in nanogold-qPCR.
The total and infectious of adenoviruses were detected at the highest quantitative (total adenoviruses :> 2.34 Log PFU/L; infectious of adenoviruses :> 4.25 Log PFU/L) by qPCR and cell culture in swage water, furthermore sewage water was received human fecal pollution. When comparing the direct-PCR method with culture-PCR method in sewage water samples, direct-PCR just appeared that adenovirus type 41 was detected and culture-PCR revealed that there were adenovirus type 2 and 3 but none of adenovirus 41 was detected in same wastewater sample. According to the result of phylogeny tree, the result showed that the nucleotide of adenoviruses isolated from the wastewater treatment plant and had significant positive correlation with Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, the study inferred that the adenoviruses were transmitted in the Asia-Pacific region. The concentration of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, settle able solid and AC/TC ratio showed significant positive correlation with the adenoviruses titers in raw sewage water. Besides, the removal efficiency of total and infectious adenoviruses also increased to 92% and >99% , respectively. However, the removal efficiency of indicator bacteria showed no correlation with adenoviruses removal efficiency in effluent water. Finally, this study proved that the risk of infection, the risk of illness and the risk of death could be reduced to 1.85×10-1, 2.88×10-1 and 4.90×10-5 per year.