||Due to the Taiwan’s large-scale aquaculture industry, the problem of fish’s diseases and deterioration of water quality has become evident. The use of chemicals for the control of fish diseases or water quality, results in a more serious problem of drug resistance of fish’s diseases, chemicals contamination and environmental pollution problems. In addition, due to the long-time usage of the aquaculture pool, high quantity of feeding bait, and the high cultivation density resulted in the accumulation of biological waste. It needs to find the most effective way to improve the cultivation environment, and also the enhancement of fish’s survival and growth rate. This study is to explore the probiotics or the microbial products that can effectively improve the culture environment, reducing of fish’s diseases, and improvement of the aquaculture productivity. In this study, we concluded that the adding of photosynthetic bacteria to the aquaculture pool could effectively digest the organic wastes in the bottom of culture pool; therefore, it could help to improve the water quality, control of aquaculture diseases, and enhancement of the fish’s survival rate. Meanwhile the aquaculture ecological environment could be improved by reducing the concentration of ammonia nitrogen, BOD, and also increase of the dissolved oxygen. Photosynthetic bacteria could be used as the nutrition for fish, shrimp and other organisms. Photosynthetic bacteria contain protein, vitamins, growth factors and other physiologically active substances for the improvement of fish’s growth and healthy conditions. By using Photosynthetic bacteria in the aquaculture, the farmer could have better profitability. The upgrading culture technology can also promise a sustainable aquaculture industry in our country.